Abraham Lincoln:

the sixteenth and one of the greatest presidents(1861-65) of the USA (Errington & Miragoliotta 2007, p.221).

Active Audience:

An active audience uses the media to meet certain ends for them. They would use it as a tool for social interaction, education, entertainment and identification. According to Balnaves, Donald and Shoesmith (2009), when conducting researches on the influences of the mass media, the audience is usually assumed as active instead of passive. The audience concerns the trustworthy of the media as well as the type of content. Balnaves, Donald and Shoesmith (2009) point out the three identified main clusters from past studies on the concerns of the audience when choosing different forms of media and different media providers, which are the needs for information, diversion and personal needs, for example language and political views. Furthermore, the encoding and decoding theory of Hall (in Philo 2008, p.535-536) recognises the relationship between the media and the active audience as encoding and decoding messages within a culture. Hall (Philo 2008, p.535-536) explains that encoding refers to the language and visual images that are provided by the media based on the culture, the common understanding and knowledge when decoding is the way the audiences interpret and respond to the messages. Moreover, three different responses will be given after “decoding” a message. Hall (Philo 2008, p.535-536) explains the audiences consider it as normal, as “taken for granted” or “negotiable” with different specific perspectives or stays opposition side.


An advertising pod positioned next to a particular TV or radio program. Also called commercial break positions.


A station associated with a network by contract to broadcast the network's programs.
In the broadcasting industry (especially in North America), a network affiliate (or affiliated station) is a local broadcaster which carries some or all of the program line-up of a television or radio network, but is owned by a company other than the owner of the network. This distinguishes such a station from an owned-and operated station (O&O), which is owned by its parent network.
Notwithstanding this distinction, it is common in informal speech (even for networks or O&Os themselves) to refer to any station, O&O or otherwise, that carries a particular network's programming as an affiliate, or to refer to the status of carrying such programming in a given market as "affiliation".

Agenda priming:

A term coined by Iyengar and Kinder, it draws on and expands upon the agenda setting thesis; Iyengar and Kinder argued that media helps to "prime" or influence how people think about particular issues; the media sets the context (on the basis of the stories it presents) in which audiences make political judgements, not only about the "issue" but also perceptions about how well political candidates and organisations are doing their job in relation to that issue (Errington & Miragoliotta 2007, p.52).

Agenda setting:

Associated with the work of Shaw and McComb, it posits that the media does not tell us what to think, but rather tells us what to think about (Errington & Miragliotta 2007, p.52). Agenda setting is prominent within the news media and in public relations. Public relations practitioners particularly use 'spin' to focus the public attention on their own agenda through the dissemination of favourable press releases. Interest groups, organisations and political campaigners additionally have the power to focus the public attention on particular issues.

Agenda setting role:

The power of senior journalists to make choices about which news items that make the front page of a newspaper, or the lead story on broadcast news, to shape the agenda in politics (Errington & Miragliotta 2007, p.113).

Aggressive Cues Theory:

Argues against the Catharsis Theory, agreeing that exposure to aggressive stimuli will increase physiological and emotional arousal which will increase the probability of violence. However, Aggressive Cue Theorists are quick to point out, that watching violence prevalent in mass media only increases the chances of violence in society, it does not necessarily guarantee that individuals will always be more aggressive (Berkowitz 1965).


A form of transmitting information characterised by continuously variable quantities, as opposed to digital transmission, which is characterised by discrete bits of information in numerical steps. (Errington & Miragliotta 2007, p. 221).

Anti-Siphoning Legislation:

A scheme that the Australian Parliament enacted in 1992 that ensured Australians had free-to-air access to major events such as, The Commonwealth Games, The Olympics, The Melbourne Cup, FIFA World Cup, etc instead of being 'siphoned off' to pay television (Errington & Miragliotta 2007, p.27).


Main article: Audience

Audiences have traditionally been viewed as "passive processors and receivers of information, lacking the innate capacity to think critically about the information to which they were exposed" (Errington & Miragliotta 2007, p.46). Abercrombie and Longhurst (1998) identify three phases in the development of the audience:
  1. the 'simple audience' - copresent in the performance of, for example, theatre.
  2. the 'mass audience' - taking place up to mid-20th century, they are seen as passive receivers of mass communicate

Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983 (& ABC):

The Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983 is an important peice of legislation that outlines the objectives of each organisation and their purpose of public broadcasting. This legislation governs the Australian Broadcasting Corporation and conveys important information about the responsibility for management and limits of reach in authoritative departments (Errington & Miragliotta 2007).

The ABC is a Statutory Body, which is run by the board of directors and reports directly to parliament. The main idea for this arrangement is so that the Government is restricted in being able to interfere with the activities run by the ABC. (Errington & Miragliotta 2007) However, in saying this, the ABC is legally bound to consider any Government policy statements, which allow the government to be notified of any change in the corporation plans (Errington & Miragliotta 2007).

The ABC play a significant role in offering media service to the Australian Society. They conduct, television, radio and online services, which are all significant areas of media in our society. The ABC have over 4000 employes, four national radio stations, 51 regional stations, national television network and over 1.7 million pages of web content (Errington & Miragliotta 2007). All of these media outlets are mainly funded by the federal government (Errington & Miragliotta 2007).

The Australian Broadcasting Corporation, originally the Australian Broadcasting Commission: Australia’s public broadcaster, which derives its funding from federal government government, not advertising (Bainbridge, Goc & Tynan 2008, p.64).

Australian Classification Board:

The independent statutory body concerned with the classification and rating of films, computer games and literature. The board acts according to the National Classification Code which has been agreed upon by the Australian Government and it's states and territories (Commonwealth of Australia 2009).

Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC):

It oversees the day-to-day administration of FATA and the TPA. Its mandate is to protect consumer rights​, business rights and obligations, perform industry regulation and price monitoring duties and prevent illegal anti-competitive behaviour.

Australian Journalists Association (AJA):

formed in 1910 and registered federally in 1911, this union served its members until 1991 when is amalgamated with the Australian Commercial & Industrial Artists Association; in 1993, the AJA (along with the Australian Theatrical and Amusement Employees Association and the Actors Equity of Australia) amalgamated to form the Media, Entertainment and Arts Alliance(MEAA).(Errington & Miragoliotta 2007, p.222).

Australian Press Council:

The Australian Press Council is the self-regulatory body of the Australian print media. It was established in 1976 and is a private organisation. Its aims are:
  • To help preserve the traditional freedom of the press within Australia.
  • To ensure that the free press acts responsibly and ethically.
  • To carry out its latter function, it serves as a forum to which the public may take a complaint concerning the press. In its attempts to preserve the freedom of the press, it keeps a watching brief on developments which might threaten such freedoms.


Political or personal freedom to make independent decisions without the influence of outside authority.



Involves journalists seeking information from political actors without naming them in the resulting story.

Blacklisting Software:

The notion of 'blocking' sites which are viewed as having harmful or inappropriate content.


An online digital journal.
A blog (a blend of the term web log )is a type of website or part of a website. Blogs are usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse-chronological order. Blog can also be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog.
Most blogs are interactive, allowing visitors to leave comments and even message each other via widgets on the blogs and it is this interactivity that distinguishes them from other static websites.
Many blogs provide commentary or news on a particular subject; others function as more personal online diaries. A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, Web pages, and other media related to its topic. The ability of readers to leave comments in an interactive format is an important part of many blogs. Most blogs are primarily textual, although some focus on art (Art blog), photographs (photoblog), videos (video blogging), music (MP3 blog), and audio (podcasting). Microblogging is another type of blogging, featuring very short posts.

Blogger (Web-logger):

A person who contributes or maintains a blog or online journal.


Blogosphere is the term given to the bogging universe. The term indicates that blogs are a phone linespart of an connected community, where a network of people throughout the world can communicating with each other through viewing and commenting on blogs.


A term often used in reference to the middle class; in Marxist terminology it is specifically applied to the ruling capitalist class that owns the means of production.
(A class) whose outlook is said to be determined by a concern for property values; a capitalised, as opposed to a member of the Proletariat or wage-earning class.

Broadcast Calendar:

An industry-accepted calendar used mainly for accounting and billing purposes. Weeks run Monday-Sunday, and each month is four or five weeks long.


A term that defines a communication method, usually referring to the type of connection someone/something has to the Internet. Can indicate a myriad of technologies, including wireless broadband, ADSL, DSL and ADSL2/2+. This form of connection is much faster than dial up services as it utilises frequencies that are not used by traditional phone line technology, allowing for copper phone phonelineslines to be used as infrastructure, greatly reducing cost.


"The transmission of knowledge (ideas and information) in the widest possible circles" (Bainbridge, Goc & Tynan 2008)

Broadcast calendar

An An industry-acceptedindustry-accepted calendar used mainly for accounting and billing purposes, Weeks run monday-sunday, and each month is four or five weeks long, (Bainbridge, Goc & Tynan 2008).


A program that intitates a users access to websites.


All of the governments taxation and spending plans for the year combined in a single statement.

Boundary Objects:

It refers to objects that can be 'situated at the intersection of several social worlds', and can therefore bring together the diverse communities involved in decisions about technical innovation, ranging from scientists and engineers to financiers, marketers, suppliers, and end-users.


Cable TV:

TV programming that is delivered by coaxial cable rather than over the air for the purpose of improved reception and delivery of additional program choices beyond the local stations (Bainbridge, Goc & Tynan 2008).


The supreme decision- making institution of government, consisting of the prime minister/premier and his/her most senior ministers (Errington & Miragliotta 2007, p. 34).

Cabinet government:

The system where all important decisions are made by a group of senior ministers for which they take collective responsibility.

Catharsis Theory:

Suggest that harmful violence in the media actually has a positive affect on society. The Catharsis Theory argues that in daily life, individuals build up frustrations which are then released through the participation in watching other's aggressions in the media (William & Brooks 1957).


Main article: Censorship

The act, process, or practice of censoring.
  1. The office or authority of a Roman censor.
  2. Psychology (definition) Prevention of disturbing or painful thoughts or feelings from reaching consciousness except in a disguised form.
  3. The act of prohibition and control over ideas and other forms of human expression (Errington & Miragliotta, 2007).

Citizen Journalist:

Citizen Journalists essentially perform the same function as professional journalists and reporters; to disseminate information to public audiences. Bainbridge, Goc, and Tynan (2008) specifically refer to this title as "a member of the public who acts in the role of a journalist gathering news and new information that are communicated to an audience". Citizen journalism prospered following the advent of the Internet and the Web 2.0 boom (Burns 2008), providing an online forum for ordinary citizens to transmit information on a global scale (Rogers 2010). Citizen journalism can take a variety of forms including text, pictures, audio and video (Rogers 2010). Specific types of citizen journalism include readers comments, blogging, Wiki contribution and other means that align the ordinary citizen and the professional journalist.

The simplest form of citizen journalism is reader comments posted on Web articles. These user comments "offer the opportunity for readers to react to, criticise, praise or add to what's published by professional journalists" (Outing 2005). Comments may also be used to offer a new perspective or insight into the event or issue raised in the article. Another form of citizen journalism is in the role of "add-on reporter" (Outing 2005). This is an important avenue for journalists to "solicit information and experiences from members of the public" (Outing 2005). The use of the citizen journalist in this respect is valuable to the professional journalist and the public audience, as they are able to provide a deeper coverage on the subject matter presented in the article.

Open-source reporting is another form of citizen journalism concerning the collaboration between the reporter and the public on how a story should be covered and what appears in the final journalistic product (Bainbridge, Goc & Tynan 2008, p.413). This is likely to become an increasing trend in the Australian media. The most prominent role of the citizen journalist is as a blogger. Blogging allows citizen commentary on a variety of issues and events, ranging from high-profile media news to localised community information. Organisations have additionally begun adopting pro-am hybrid techniques, combining professional and amateur journalism (Bainbridge, Goc & Tynan 2008, p.414). A well-known example is the South Korean site OhmyNews, with approximately 38,000 citizen journalists on the payroll (Bainbridge, Goc and Tynan 2008, p.414).

Stand-alone citizen journalism sites also exist, comprising new material and contributions from the community (Outing 2005). Wiki journalism (or the WikiNews site) is another prominent example allowing anyone to create and edit news stories. It is based on an "experimental concept operating on the theory that the knowledge and intelligence of a group can produce credible, well-balanced news accounts" (Outing 2005). Additionally, social media has the potential to provide an online sphere for broadcasting news.

Citizen journalism has aided the work of professional journalists in previous years. Examples include the coverage of the Boxing Day Tsunami in 2004 and the July 2005 London bombings where citizens have provided amateur footage and witness accounts to the media, thus transforming them into 'media commodities' (Bainbridge, Goc, and Tynan 2008, p. 415). Other examples date back to 1963, with the Zapruder film of the assassination of United States President John F. Kennedy (Bainbridge, Goc, and Tynan 2008, p. 415). Even public "tip-offs" are examples of citizen journalism that have existed in the foundations of media practice for many years.

As Australian and global audiences continue to lose trust in growing numbers of media monopolies, characterised as "removed, elitist and agenda-driven" (Bainbridge, Goc & Tynan 2008, p.416), the citizen journalist is fast becoming a media phenomenon.

Chequebook Journalism:

"Journalism that involves the payment of money to a source for the right to publish or broadcast information" (Bainbridge, Goc & Tynan, 2008, p.423)

Classification Act:

The Classification Act 1995 requires that "material of a commercial nature, with some exceptions, must be classified before it can be displayed or sold legally in Australia." (Errington & Miragliotta 2007, p.129) The Classification Act 1995 remains the principle censorship law used by the Commonwealth to regulate film, video, publications and video games.

Classification of Media:

Some popular ways ofclassifyingg media are such as technology, 'new' vs 'old' media and 'hot' vs 'cold' media. Technology indicates that media can be operated in many ways such as print vs broadcasting. ' New' vs 'old' media means those media that was already known in the past such as printing and those new to us such as internet. Hot media requires low participation from the user because it consists of visual and verbal content such as television. Cold media such as cartoon requires active participation from the user because they do not contain lots of information and content.

Classification of video games:

The four discourses of video games are entertainment form, simulation, play form and creative resource.
  • Entertainment form discourse is to understand video games similar to movies and televisions etc. They are classified into narrative, theme zs and genres etc. Australia do not sell any games classified as above MA15+. Australian classification restrict games to the same criteria as film such as violence, sex, drug use and nudity etc.
  • The simulation discourse is to understand games similar to simulators such as military combat, flight simulators and driving simulators. It argues that it can create anti-social behaviour such as an attempt to break the law. The advantages are problem solving, team management and hand eye coordination etc. The disadvantages are violence, mechanics of killings and expose of military tactics etc.
  • The play form discourse are video games similar to sports, toys and board games etc. It can be argues that it is separate from real-life as games are about fun and fantasy.
  • The resource discourse are understanding video games as a resource, a set of objects and systems the user can play with. It argues that players does not involve creativity as video games are mindless.

Code of Ethics:

a statement of principles that outlines the expected behaviour of members of a professional group, and that reflects the values that it members are required to observe

Cold Media:

A term associated with the idea of Marshall McLuhan, who argued that media could be split into two categories; 'hot' and 'cold'. Cold media is media which requires active participation from the audience, it is media that requires a certain prerequisite of cultural knowledge in order to engage with. Example: Cartoon (Errington & Miragliotta 2007, p.4).

Cold War:

the period from the end of the Second World War (1945) to the fall of the Berlin Wall (1989) that was a period of tension, but not direct conflict, between capitalist and communist states

Committee to Protect Journalists:

The committee to protect journalists is an organisation that works towards allowing journalists and newspapers press freedom.


A term used to describe the process by which something which does not have an economic value is assigned a value and hence how market values can replace other social values. It describes a modification of relationships, formerly untainted by commerce, into commercial relationships. (Andy Blunden, ed. Commodification. Encyclopedia of Marxism)


The process by which goods that have economic value and are distinguishable in terms of attributes (uniqueness or brand) end up becoming simple commodities in the eyes of the market or consumers. It is the movement of a market from differentiated to undifferentiated price competition and from monopolistic to perfect competition. Rushkoff, Douglas

"Commodified vs. Commoditized" 2008)


In terms of mass media effects, this expression is used to describe a value, meaning or ideology associated with a media text that is contributed to the text by the audience.


Companies that own media companies as well as owning unrelated businesses. E.g. Walt Disney has a share in nuclear power plants and some oil companies as well as the broadcasting industry


The compulsory recruitment of labour by the government, for war or any other purpose. (Errington & Miragliotta 2007, p.223).


Enacted in 1900, the Australian Commonwealth Constitution is a legal compact that sets out the fundamental political principles of government, describing important political institutions, actors and processes.


In media terms, this refers to the process in which a media text is shaped and refined in order to keep the audience interested in this text. This process is usually subject to a variety of decisions.


The audeince for whom a commercial media text is constructed and who responds to the text with commercial activity.


Main article: Controversy

A public and heated disagreement that is often prolonged. "A contentious speech act" (Princeton University, 2010). Controversies often arise from discrepancies in media broadcasting in which the knowledge transmitted may be incomplete or untrue.


Main article: Technological Convergence

Convergence can be defined as the interlinking of information technologies, media content and networks in adapting to the demands of technology to create new efficiencies, “changing the way we create, consume, learn and interact with each other” (Jenkins & Henry, 2006)

An example of convergence in the media is the Apple Iphone, which is not only a portable telephone but a web browser, a social networking tool, a digital camera and other devices. This type of media convergence is popular for consumers as it means more features in less space, and more value for money (Franklin, 2005).

The Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Creative Industries and Innovation (CCI) presents the predicted trends in convergence from 2006 to 2016 as follow.

Examples of convergence in the media:


Files that are downloaded by websites initiated by a users viewing of that website. Information is collected regarding the history of your browser and the information it has stored; including login details and passwords as well as shopping history and website history.


"Intangible property which allows the copyright owner, or those authorised by the copyright owner, the exclusive right to prohibit or to do certain acts. The rights comprised in copyright are distinct from any rights adhering in the medium in or upon which the relevant work or subject matter is recorded" (Butt ed., 2004, p. 97)

Cross-media ownership:

The ownership of a television station in the same territory as some other major source of news and information, such as a daily newspaper or radio station. Laws that until 2007 limited media companies to one type of platform- television, radio or newspapers- in each market (Bainbridge, Goc & Tynan 2008, p.119).

Cultural Imperialism:

Refers to the influence that one culture has over another in relation certain productions such as TV, film, radio and music. Countries that are accused of being under cultural imperialism are subjected to a more dominant nation's culture and thus have the potential to lose their own native traditions.

Culture Industry:

Theodor W. Adorno expressed "mass culture" as culture industry in his first book called Dialectic of enlightenment. Culture Industry is about a mass production, duplication of a traditional value and making that value disappear due to capitalism and consumerism. The true authentic art is not what people really demand now. The culture Industry transfers the profit motive onto cultural forms.

This is a useful link also to have a watch. Cultural Theory: Frankfurt School Critical Theory

Culture Competency:

Ideas and knowledge of the texts comes from the experience. The knowledge is only known by the people who have the same culture experience or have learnt about the culture; including value, scripts and the system of the culture (Bainbridge, Goc & Tynan 2008, p.172).

Culture Jamming:

1. A tactic used by many consumer social movements , is a mechanism in which an activist or activist group attempts to disrupt or subvert mainstream cultural institutions including corporate advertising.
2. Culture jamming sometimes entails transforming mass media to produce ironic or satirical commentary about itself, using the original medium's communication method. Culture jamming is usually employed in opposition to a perceived appropriation of public space, or as a reaction against social conformity.

Current affairs:

"Current political and social events or issues, usually on television or radio." (Bainbridge. Goc & Tynan 2008)

Current affairs programmes:

Tabloid-style entertainment programmes designed to achieve ratings impact whilst purporting to be journalistic in nature. Not to be confused with actual news programmes.


Cyber -libertarianism has been a vision for an Internet commonly found key user communities - particularly in the USA - that viewed the infrastructure as essentially being able to be managed by a self-governing community of users. (Flew 2008, p.222)


"The notional realm in which electronic information exists or is exchanged, the imagined world of virtual reality" (Bainbridge, Goc & Tynan 2008).



One of the time segments into which the day is divided by broadcast media, determined by type of programming and who provides it (network or local).

Defamation Laws:

Sample of the Defamation Legislation in effect in NSW.

Defamation laws are in place to inhibit the defamation of reputation of parties on groundless claims . Defamation is thus defined as " a communication from one person to at least one other that lowers or harms the reputation of an identifiable third person, where the communicator (the publisher) has no legal defence." (Arts Law Centre of Australia, 2010). In theory, the objective of defamation laws is to balance protection of individual reputation with freedom of expression.
For a defamation action to be justified, the party claiming to be the victim of such defamation (the plaintiff) has to prove three things:

1.that the communication has been published to a third person
2. that the communication identifies (or is about) the plaintiff; and
3. that the communication is defamatory.
(Arts Law Centre of Australia, 2010)

In terms of media practices that often touch upon negative information regarding institutes, such as government , large corporations or individual private citizens, law suits are often filed in regards to the harm of reputation regarding the target of such media coverage. However it is important to note that truth is a complete defence towards claims deemed defamatory by a plaintiff, especially when such material affects public interest. Thus theoretically the laws against defamation should not hinder the freedom in holding institutes or individuals to scrutiny,therefore enabling the performance of the "town crier" or "watchdog" function fundamental to decent journalistic practice.

Defence of Justification:

"It is a defence to the publication of defamatory matter if the defendant proves that the defamatory imputations carried by the matter of which the plaintiff complains are substantially true." (Defamation Act of 2005).

Defence of Fair Report of Proceedings of Public Concern:

"It is a defence to the publication of defamatory matter if the defendant proves that the matter was, or was contained in, a fair report of any proceedings of public concern." (Defamation Act of 2005). Thus theoretically any claims made by anyone such as publishers or journalist that are project negative discourse or harms the reputation of a another party is immune to convictions as long as such claims can be proven to be true. In the matters of "opinions", often seen in commentaries or columns in contrast to "statement of facts" Australian Law provides for the immunity of conviction under the defamation act known as the "Defence of Honest opinion".

Defence of Honest Option:

It is a defence to the publication of defamatory matter if the defendant proves that:
1. the matter was an expression of opinion of the defendant rather than a statement of fact,
2. the opinion related to a matter of public interest, (Defamation Act of 2005)

Other Defenses against defamation include the " Defense of absolute privilege" , "Defense of qualified privilege for provision of certain information :","Defense for publication of public documents" ," Defense of innocent dissemination"," Defense of triviality". (see Defamation Act of 2005).

However in reality, Legal defense is an expensive process and one that can take up to years to settle. Appeals and attorney fees can cause such cases to be drawn out extremely long and made extremely costly. In effect it becomes those who have enough financial backing that prevail in such lawsuits. Thus many journalists are encouraged by their employers to refrain from publishing controversial comments against large institutes. Thus many academics have concluded that the "The result is that defamation law is often used by the rich and powerful to deter criticisms. It is seldom helpful to ordinary people whose reputations are attacked unfairly." (Brian Martin, University of Wollongong in association with Whistle Blowers Australia). It seems that even political figures have come to use such lawsuits to supress negative press in the emergence of "SLAPP" ( Strategic Lawsuits Against Public Protest ) suits. This phrase points to institutes or political figures suing defamation suits to overwhelm members of the press in order to divert attention or to suppress publishing of negative content. " The main object in a SLAPP is to intimidate citizens, discouraging them from speaking out." (Brian Martin, University of Wollongong in association with Whistle Blowers Australia). The Defamation Acts of 2005 , sought to address this problem by introducing more defenses such as that of the "honest opinion" as seen above as well as to create a uniformity of defamation law within Australia. (each state passed a near identical law throughout 2005-2006). The Bills were according to Queensland Attorney General Lynda Lynch, aimed at "preventing corporations (other than non-for-profit organisations or small businesses) from suing for defamation, addressing current community concerns that large companies could stifle legitimate public debate by beginning defamation action;" (EFA, 2010) This new act while still recent, has been hailed as " a major improvement on the previous situation."(EFA,2010) by many members of the press as well as civil liberties organizations. In addition to law governing Defamation against or by parties within Australia, A recent High Court of Australia ruling regarding the case Gutnick v. Dow Jones has determined that defamers based abroad but victimizing Australians in the medium of Internet were also liable and under the jurisdiction of Australian law. The case concerned a Victorian businessmen alleged to be defamed by a publication of Dow Jones limited, a U.S Company.The ruling applied "Australia’s traditional rules of jurisdiction to determine that Australian courts do have jurisdiction to adjudicate alleged defamation on the Internet."(Saadat) even in the case of foreign defamer. This case is considered to be a pioneer ruling gaining international fame and importance as it " it was the first judgment of any nation’s final appellate court on the jurisdiction issue in an international defamation case involving Internet-based publication."(Saadat).

Deliberative democracy:

The encouragement of extensive and rational public debate on political issues before decisions are made.


A system of government where-in a nations body of citizens elect the officials who will represent them in parliament.
Democracyis a political form of government in which governing power is derived from the people, either by direct referendum (direct democracy) or by means of elected representatives of the people (representative democracy).


Consumer characteristics, such as age, sex, income and marital status.

Department of Communication, Information Technology and the Arts (DICTA)

DICTA is a government department which is required to offer 'strategic advice and professional support' to the Minister for Communications. It also plays a role in the formulation and administration of policy, and its main field of regulation is electronic media.


The removal (either in part or whole) of Government controls over an industry which is done ostensibly in the interests of improving the economic and productive efficiency of the industry in question.

Designated Market Area (DMA)
Nielson's term for geographical areas made up of exclusive countries based on which home market stations receive the predominant share of viewing (Bainbridge, Goc & Tynan 2008)

Diffused Audience:

An audience that is heavily embedded in muitiple electronic mediums (online blogging websites, youtube, social networking sites) A response to the contemporary 'media culture' that has arisen in the 21st century.


Information-processing techniques that convert the actual data into binary (machine language_ code for more efficient transmission and storage; it is regarded as being more secure than its sibling, analogue, and also relatively impervious to static or fading signals. It is also defined as a form of transmitting information characterised by continuously variable quantities, as opposed to digital transmission, which is characterised by discrete bits of information in numerical steps (Errington & Miragliotta 2007, p.224).


The use of digital technology to replace analogue technology; digital signals can be compacted and therefore carry more channels than the single, continuous analogue signals.
Digitisation is the representation of an object, image, sound, document or a signal (usually an analog signal) by a discrete set of its points or samples. The result is called digital representation or, more specifically, a digital image, for the object, and digital form, for the signal. Strictly speaking, digitisation means simply capturing an analog signal in digital form. For a document the term means to trace the document image or capture the "corners" where the lines end or change direction.


The intentional planting of false information by government agencies or sources.

Dissident Press:

Media that presents alternative viewpoints for the mainstream press.

Dix review:

A major review of the ABC in 1981, named after Alexander Dix, who chaired the review.


A noun meaning variety. Diversify as a verb. It is the responsibility of media to cater to a diverse audience. This is done through coverage of information pertinent to several different ethnic groups on news stations as well as racial diversity of characters in television shows. In recent years diversity on television shows has rapidly increased as concern over social equality has risen. With the increase in channels through new technologies content diversity has also grown rapidly in recent years.

Also relates to content diversity, source diversity and exposure diversity.


It is a filmed production that combines both documentary and fictional elements. It allows the director wide creativity range since they are only "based on" productions so they don't have to stick to the use of real documents from that fact or person that they want to make the movie about.


Domestication describes the processes by which innovations in new technology become integrated into the everyday life and adapted to the daily practices of its consumers (Habib 2005, p.79-87).


When the media is read by consumers in a way that was intended by the creators. Also see Dominant Culture.

Dominant Culture:

The system of beliefs and ideologies constructed by dominant institutions and passed down to subjects of the said culture by various means (education and media). Anything that challenges/questions the dominant culture rather than reflect it's values becomes counter-cultural and is viewed as radical, and often dangerous.


"Transferring data (usually a file) from a another computer to the computer you are are using. The opposite of upload", (Matisse's Glossary of Terms,1994-2008).